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A History of
In the United States
The Remarkable Surgical Innovations of Sir Harold Gillies (1882-1960): - While repairing the faces and bodies of grievously wounded veterans of World War I, Royal Army Medical Corps surgeon Harold Gillies pioneered many plastic surgical techniques, setting the stage for the eventual rise of cosmetic surgery. After the war he continued to practice. In 1946 he performed the first phalloplasty on transgender man Michael Dillon, and in 1951 a vaginoplasty on transgender woman Roberta Cowell. Christian Hamburger, (1904-1992): Physician to Christine Jorgensen - Christian Hamburger was a endocrinologist who began his career doing research on human gonadotropins. Because of this, he was approached by American Danish George Jorgensen, who persuaded him to give her feminizing hormonal treatment. Christine Jorgensen returned to the U.S. in December 1952. The Casablanca Connection: Georges Burou, (1910-1987) - French gynecologist Georges Burou maintained his Clinique du Parc in Casablanca, Morocco, where from the mid-1950s through the mid-1980s he performed surgery on more than 3000 transsexual women. His patients included Coccinelle, April Ashley, and Jan Morris. He shared his techniques with Western colleagues in 1973, and they continue to be influential.
1. Michael Dillon, (1915-1962). Not yet assigned 2. Roberta Cowell, (1918-2011). Not yet assigned 3. Christine Jorgensen (1926-,1992): focus here on how and why she got to Denmark and her two-year transition under care of Hamburger. Assigned 4. Coccinelle, (1931-2006) April Ashley, (1935-), Jan Morris, (1926-), experience for people of color. Not yet assigned