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A History of
In the United States
In this chapter we address the introduction of medical interventions for youth in the early twenty-first century, specifically puberty blockers for transgender and gender expansive youth (first developed by the Dutch), the rise of the gender affirmative model, the fall of reparative therapy, and the availability of gender-affirming hormones (and more recently surgeries) for minors. These practices have radically changed the landscape of care and conceptualizations of gender development/gender health in the United States. We explore the recent explosion in gender affirmative care and support programs at this moment in history—what is happening now and why—and implications for future of youth gender care in the U.S.